Maize-adaptability, stress management and uses: An overview
Manpreet Jaidka, Shikha Mahajan and Anuradha Kumari
Maize, belonging to family poaceae, is cultivated in 166 countries of the world. Maize crop is of tropical origin and keeps the highest genetic yield potential in the cereal group. This crop is originated primarily from Central America and Mexico. In India, maize crop is cultivated in diverse climatic conditions owing to its wider adaptability. In India, a number of maize based cropping systems like have been identified in different agro-climatic zones. Within Trans Gangetic Plain agro-climatic zone, cropping systems such as maize fb wheat, maize fb paddy fb wheat etc. are economically viable and successfully adopted by the farmers. Climate change is going to effect every inch and corner of agriculture worldwide. Frequent floods and water logging problem is going to affect approximately 18 percent of total area under maize cultivation in South as well as South-east Asia, which in turn, may cause losses of 25-30% annually. In this scenario of climate change, smart technologies play pivotal role in bringing resilience in the agriculture production systems. Technologies zero tillage or raised bed planting technologies prove worthwhile in coping up the harmful impact of climate change along with conservation of natural resources like water. Biotic stress can be tackled well through integrated approach whether to manage weeds or insect-pests. Integrated use of tembotrione at 36.7 g/ha dose sole/mixing with atrazine at 208 g/ha dose as intra-row and hand weeding (inter-row) realized equal level of control of weeds and maize yield with foliar spray of tembotrione at 110 g/ha sole/mixing with atrazine at 625 g/ha dose. Prevention of crop from various abiotic stresses like extreme dry conditions, osmotic stress, extreme temperature stress etc. can provide avenue to make the maize production climate resilient. Maize crop can be stored as silage for use as fodder during lean period. Harvesting of crop at proper stage, chopping and packing in silo at proper moisture content followed by fermentation process under anaerobic conditions makes a good quality silage which is highly palatable and preferred by the farm animals. Maize crop not only act as source of food and dry/green fodder but also meets other purposes like novel foods such as quality protein maize, waxy corn, and amylo-maize.
How to cite this article:
Manpreet Jaidka, Shikha Mahajan and Anuradha Kumari. Maize-adaptability, stress management and uses: An overview. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2023; 12(9S): 1026-1035.