Organic farming has emerged as an important priority in India to promote environmental sustainability and food safety. With only 1.5% of total agricultural land under organic cultivation, there is immense scope for growth. Organic farming avoids use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, and focuses on traditional practices that nurture the soil through crop rotations, organic manures, green manures and biological pest control. This review article provides an overview of the current status, benefits, challenges and future prospects of organic farming in India. Organic produce fetches higher prices and improves farm incomes. Organic practices build soil health, conserve biodiversity, reduce pollution and mitigate climate change impacts. Challenges include transition costs, certification burdens, lack of awareness, supply chain gaps and insufficient institutional support. Government schemes to mainstream organic farming through farmer incentives, market development and extension services have shown positive impacts. Further policy support, public-private partnerships, farmer collectives and participatory guarantee systems can help tap the full potential of organic farming towards building sustainable food production systems in India.