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Vol. 12, Special Issue 7 (2023)

Study of nonreproductive effects of insect parasitoids

RN Borkakati, MK Deka, Dipen Ch. Nath and Naseema Rahman
Parasitoids wasps are a natural enemy species that can be used in the biological control of pests, have many uses, and are a good model in theoretical ecology. The main purpose of the action of the parasitoids is to kill the host by oviposition and develop offspring, which eventually causes death due to reproduction of parasitoids. However, for some parasitoids species, the adult female may also feed from the host to obtain food for future reproduction of parasitoids, often resulting in the death of the host. The effect of parasitoids on the host is predictable if host deaths are excluded. After egg laying, both larvae and adults can cause the death of the host. The non-reproductive influence was established by Abram et al. (2019) in the absence of parasitoids or host. However, non-reproductive effects - May effects on the host, including death, but these are not beneficial to the parasitoids for immediate development. Different names have been used as, viz., failed parasitism, nonreproductive killing, hypersensitivity, dudding, host destruction, surplus killing, abortion, residual mortality, and parasitoids-induced other mortality. However, parasitoids can also adversely affect their hosts in ways that do not support the development of current or future offspring (other than fertility). Host conflict can adversely affect growth, behavior, reproduction, and mortality. In addition, Abram et al. (2019) divided non-reproductive effects into five groups, - (a) nonconsumptive effects; (b) mutilation; (c) pseudoparasitism; (d) immune defence expenses; and (e) aborted parasitism. A latent feature of the host-parasitoid trophic network is the non-reproductive phenomenon, which is useful for assessing the impact on communities as well as the ecosystem services provided by parasitoid for biological control.
Pages: 1279-1283  |  134 Views  80 Downloads
How to cite this article:
RN Borkakati, MK Deka, Dipen Ch. Nath and Naseema Rahman. Study of nonreproductive effects of insect parasitoids. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2023; 12(7S): 1279-1283.
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