A short review on transmission of lumpy skin disease
Ravali Thota and Abhilash Manda
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral transboundary disease caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of Capripoxvirus genus of Poxviridae family. This disease was known to be once endemic in Saharan regions of Africa but later, reported in central Asian and neighbouring countries like Pakistan, India, Iran and China. This disease continuously spreading from region to region before vaccination campaigns took their full effect, mainly showing seasonal patterns despite implementing control and eradication measures. Within a short period of time this disease spreads to several hundred kilometers away from initial outbreak sites. LSDV spreads to long distance by the movement of infected animals, but different seasonal patterns indicating that an arthropod-borne transmission is most likely responsible for aggressive short-distance spread of the disease. Due to this reasons scientific interest is renewed resulting in the initiation of novel research into broad aspects of the disease, including epidemiology, modes of transmission and associated risk factors. It is a vector borne disease with high morbidity and low mortality. Arthropod-borne mechanical transmission is considered primary and the most common route. The virus is transmitted to susceptible hosts by blood-sucking arthropods such as stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti), and hard ticks (Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma species). Insects can be transstadial and transovarial. Illegal animal trade considered as other route of transmission, which have played a role in the emergence of LSD in countries which is earlier free from it. Exploring the mechanisms of transmission of LSDV will enable the development of effective actions for containment and eradication of the virus. From the new evidence it is suggested that synanthropic house fly, Musca domestica, may also play a role in LSDV transmission, but this has not yet been tested in a clinical setting. The objective of this review is to discuss earlier as well as the most recent research data on LSDV transmission
How to cite this article:
Ravali Thota and Abhilash Manda. A short review on transmission of lumpy skin disease. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2023; 12(7S): 1154-1159.