A review on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in India
Arvinderpal Singh, Simranpreet Kaur, Iqra Arif, Brindha S and Jagnoor Singh Sandhu
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an emerging tick-borne viral zoonotic disease caused by Nairovirus of Bunyaviridae family. It causes fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans with a case fatality rate of as high as 10-40%. Clinically the disease is characterized by hemorrhages, chilling, sudden onset of high fever, headache, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms, and myalgia. Some patients may also experience liver dysfunction, and changes in sensory and motor functions. The disease is mostly asymptomatic in animals but plays a vital role in the transmission of disease to humans. Therefore, the persons associated with animals like veterinarians, farmers and slaughter house workers are at the high risk of getting the infection. CCHF is transmitted to humans by bite of an infected tick, crushing infected ticks with bare hands, or coming into contact with infected animal blood or tissues either before or after the animal is slaughtered. Human-to-human transmission occurs through contact with infectious blood or body fluids. CCHF has been reported from nearly 52 countries worldwide. CCHF is responsible for outbreaks in many areas of the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and Africa. In India, the first confirmed case of CCHF was reported from Gujarat. Subsequently cases have been reported from Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala. The disease has a great public health importance. Early diagnosis using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is helpful for prevention. Currently there is no antiviral drug available for CCHF, although ribavirin is administered in severe cases. This review summarises the current status of disease in India, its global distribution, aetiology, epidemiology, clinicals features, pathology, treatment and diagnosis.
How to cite this article:
Arvinderpal Singh, Simranpreet Kaur, Iqra Arif, Brindha S and Jagnoor Singh Sandhu. A review on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in India. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2023; 12(12S): 1367-1371.