Molecular basis of heterosis: A review
Rushikesh Landge, Kulbhushan Patil, Prithviraj Patil and Harshraj Salunkhe
A naturally occurring phenomenon known as heterosis, also known as hybrid vigor, occurs when the offspring of genetically diverse individual (parental line) outperform their parents in terms of physical characteristics such as functional ability, growth, and development. Crossing of Parental cultivars produces offspring with higher biomass, grain yield, and growth rates than their inbred parental lines, and has been used in agriculture for many years to boost yields and yield per acre. In an F1 hybrid, heterosis refers to the offspring's morphological and genetic superiority over the inbred parental population. Heterosis is the superiority of offspring physical and genetic features over inbred parents. In hybrid improvement, heterosis is important because it helps plant breeders to better harness the hybrid vigor of both non-inbred and inbred parental material, increasing hybrid breeding success rates. Because heterosis is used in so many crops, a variety of hybrids have emerged. The heterotic groups of inbred parental lines and their ability to merge define the inbred paternal lines and breeding aims for a healthy breeding program. In India, maize is the most significant food crop, accounting for around a quarter of total output. Its high cross-pollinated crop gives several options for increasing hybrid vigor. As a result, once heterosis, or hybrid vigour, has been achieved, it is vital in hybrid development. Several studies are presently underway to determine the molecular basis of heterosis. Molecular markers have enabled researchers to determine the genetic origin of heterosis development at the gene-expression or molecular level. It assists in identifying the genes responsible for the desired traits, as well as their chromosomal location. Molecular marker technology has been utilized to assist find desired genes in genomic regions that lead to heterosis. On the genetic and molecular basis of heterosis, as well as its contemporary advances and usage in agricultural plants, particularly those produced for human use.
How to cite this article:
Rushikesh Landge, Kulbhushan Patil, Prithviraj Patil and Harshraj Salunkhe. Molecular basis of heterosis: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2022; 11(6S): 426-434.