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Vol. 11, Special Issue 2 (2022)

Effect of contrasting tillage and fertilization on carbon footprints, soil organic carbon fractions and eco-system services of climate regulation under cereal based systems of North-West India: A review

Author(s):
Himanshu Tiwari, RK Naresh, Manisha, SP Singh, SK Kataria, Rajaram Choudhary, K Lokeshwar and Mohd Shah Alam
Abstract:
Inappropriate farm practices can increase greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions and reduce soil organic Carbon (SOC) sequestration, thereby increasing carbon footprints (CFs), jeopardizing ecosystem services, and affecting climate change. GHGs emissions from agricultural inputs were 6432.3-6527.3 kg CO2 eq ha1 yr1 during the entire growing season, respectively. The GHGs emission from chemical fertilizers and irrigation accounted for >80% of that from agricultural inputs during the entire growing season. Integrating improved farming practices lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging 256 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027–0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production. Global warming potential (GWP), GHG emission due to consumption energy and greenhouse gas intensity were recorded lower by 43%, 56% and 59% in Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) with high adaptive measures than farmers practices (3652.7 kg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1, 722.2 kg CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 and 718.7 Mg kg-1 CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1). The total SOC, WSOC, HWSOC, EOC, MBC, POC, and LFOC contents were 13.87–145.97% higher in the NPKS2 treatment than in the CK treatment. The CPMI was highest in the NPKS2 treatment in the top 20 cm soil. SOC correlated positively with labile C fractions and CPMI in the 0–5 and 5–10 cm soil layers with the exception of WSOC and LFOC in the 5–10 cm soil layer.
The sensitivity of each soil labile organic C fraction to the different treatments varied in the 0–5 cm soil layer. Compared to conventional tillage, the percentages of >2 mm macro-aggregates and water-stable macro-aggregates in rice-wheat double conservation tillage (zero-tillage and straw incorporation) were increased 17.22% and 36.38% in the 0–15 cm soil layer and 28.93% and 66.34% in the 15–30 cm soil layer, respectively. Furthermore, the large macro-aggregates (> 2 mm) with the highest proportion of size distribution represented the major pool of SOC stock (47.3–51.2%) and mineralization amount (38.2–43.6%) in the 0–30 cm layer, followed by that in the small macro-aggregates (0.25–2 mm), regardless of tillage practices. Plots with fertilization of 50% NPK + 50% GM (1.8 t ha−1) had significantly higher total soil organic C (TOC), LOC, macro-aggregate-associated C concentrations, and soil aggregation than other treatments. However, increasing the quantity of C input could enhance soil C sequestration or reduce the rate of soil C loss, depending largely on the local soil and climate conditions. SOC can be best preserved by crop rotations with conservation tillage practices such as no or reduced tillage, and with additions of residues, chemical fertilizers and manure SOC change was significantly influenced by the crop residue retention rate and the edaphic variable of initial SOC content. Soil disturbance by tillage leads to destruction of the protective soil aggregate. This in turn exposes the labile C occluded in these aggregates to microbial breakdown. A higher number of macro-aggregates along with greater accumulation of particulate organic C indicate the potential of conservation tillage for improving soil carbon over the long-term in rice-wheat rotation in North India.
Pages: 1862-1878  |  262 Views  48 Downloads
How to cite this article:
Himanshu Tiwari, RK Naresh, Manisha, SP Singh, SK Kataria, Rajaram Choudhary, K Lokeshwar and Mohd Shah Alam. Effect of contrasting tillage and fertilization on carbon footprints, soil organic carbon fractions and eco-system services of climate regulation under cereal based systems of North-West India: A review. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2022; 11(2S): 1862-1878.

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