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Vol. 10, Special Issue 8 (2021)

Role of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of non-infectious diseases

Renu Yadav, Munish Batra and RS Chauhan
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is utilized to understand the distribution and localization of biomarkers and separately expressed proteins in various parts of animal tissues such as ovary, uterus. It can assist in differentiating muscular dystrophy from non-dystrophic disorders in muscle diseases. Diagnosis of cancers is done with the help of IHC because specific tumor antigens are expressed de novo or up-regulated in certain cancers. IHC plays an important role in diagnostic dermatopathology, marker selection and interpretation is highly informed in clinical context and the histologic differential diagnosis. Recently, the applications of novel IHC markers in melanoma diagnosis containing genetic mutation status markers e.g. BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) and NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog) and an epigenetic alteration marker is highlighted (e.g. 5 hydroxymethylcytosine).The IHC findings of the normal canine skin both cytokeratin 8 (ck8) and ck18 expressions were detected in the glandular epithelium of apocrine sweat glands, but not in myoepithelial cells. No immuunoreactivity for ck8 and 18 was seen in sebaceous, hepatoid glands and in all epidermal layers. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) is found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma. BMP-McAb detects the BMP and inhibits the generation of new bone. This also makes it potentially useful in diagnosing, treating, and providing a prognosis for osteosarcoma and other bone diseases. Immunoreactivity SPY (synaptophysin) was observed predominantly in the tunica muscularis and myenteric plexuses. While, a less immunoreactivity was found in the lamina propria, submucosa and serosa in goat (Garcia et al., 2014). NNE (non-neuronal enolase) -positive neuroendocrine cells were identified at a later stage than SPY (synaptophysin) -positive cells. The staining distribution and intensity patterns for the two factors were similar except that NNE (non-neuronal enolase) staining was prominent in the epithelium of all forestomach compartments in sheep and deer. In the IHC staining technique, a strong positive reaction for cytoplasmic IgG bearing B- lymphocytes was detected within the germinal centers of lymphoid nodules, towards the base of the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and some cells even infiltrated the crypt epithelium. In the mantle zone and internodular area, reaction was very mild showing that T- lymphocytes predominated in these areas. Lung alveolar macrophages were negative for CD34 and Willebrand factor (vWF) but were positive for CD31 with a membranous pattern of staining. The nuclei of endothelial cell (EC) of the different vessel types in the lungs were diffusely stained by friend leukemia virus induced erythroleukemia (Fli-1) in human. However, the nuclei of lymphocytes were also stained, as well as the cytoplasm of some alveolar wall cells probably corresponding to mastocytes. The cardiomyocyte's structure is compromised and there is a disorganization of desmin filaments and loss of cross striation in the course of heart failure. In dog kidneys, epithelial tubular cells lose their cytokeratin staining characteristics and transdifferentiate into cells exhibiting a key mesenchymal feature of vimentin-positive staining in glomerulonephritis. In human histiocytic disorders, the tumors that originated from macrophage lineage exhibited high expression of lysozyme, whereas those arose from dendrite cell had low expression or devoid of this molecule. Immunohistochemically, calbindin-D9k (CaBP-9k) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) immunoreactions were limited to the endometrial epithelia of all examined animals. But, both repeat breeder buffalo-cows and anestrus showed remarkable lower uterine expressions for CaBP-9k and VDR in comparison with normal cyclic ones.
Pages: 1132-1143  |  460 Views  174 Downloads
How to cite this article:
Renu Yadav, Munish Batra and RS Chauhan. Role of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of non-infectious diseases. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2021; 10(8S): 1132-1143.

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