Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the most common modalities of cancer treatment. Cisplatin (Cis-diamminodichloro platinum II) is currently one of the most important chemotherapeutic drugs used in treatment of a wide range of solid tumors – head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. However the clinical usefulness of Cisplatin is limited by its cumulative nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Thirty six Wistar rats of either sex were randomly selected and divided into six groups Group A served as control, Group B served as positive control (single dose of Cisplatin @ 7.5 mg/kg of body weight I/P) and rats of Group C were treated with single dose of Cisplatin @ 7.5 mg/kg of body weight and preventive dose of P. murex
Linn. fruit extract (500 mg/kg P.O.). Group D comprised of single dose of @ 7.5 mg/kg of body weight and curative regimen of P. murex
Linn. Fruit extract (1000 mg/kg of body weight, P.O.) from 8th
day. Rats of Group E given single dose of Cisplatin @ 7.5 mg/kg of body weight and Taurine (1000 mg/kg of body weight, P.O.) and Group F served as vehicle control (0.125% tween 80 w/v). The Cisplatin treated rats showed significant reduction in body weight, Hb, TEC, TLC and PCV While; they had showed significant increase in relative kidney weights, BUN, creatinine and uric acid levels. However, rats treated with preventive regimen of P. murex
Linn extract revealed significant increase in body weight, Hb, TEC, TLC and PCV levels while significantly decreased relative kidney weights, BUN, creatinine and uric acid levels were noticed than the curative dose of the same. The histopathological observation of kidney in Cisplatin alone treated rats at the both interval showed moderate to marked tubular damage with degeneration and necrosis of tubular epithelium.
The mechanism involved in exhibiting nephroprotective activity might be due to antioxidant activity of phytoconstituents of P. murex Linn. Fruit extract which may act as free radical scavengers that restored the Cisplatin induced oxidative stress in animals.