Collection of genomic tools for pigeon pea crop improvement
Aruna Prabha, Harshal Avinashe and Nidhi Dubey
Pigeon pea is a legume crop grown under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. In India, Pigeon pea occupies a major portion of vegetarian diet. India stood among the leading producers of Pigeon pea with about 70% share in Pigeon pea production worldwide. It is tolerant to stresses and is very important protein rich crop in India often consumed on daily basis. Pigeon pea emerged from an orphan or least considered crop to a genome resource rich crop whose hybrid studies have been accelerated recently by following genomics assisted breeding approaches like Marker assisted selection (MAS), QTL mapping techniques. In order to provide steady yields under both ideal and stressed environment, it is necessary to integrate different breeding techniques using modern genomic technologies like Marker associated traits study, genome sequencing, genome wide markers, high throughput genotyping assays and germplasm re-sequencing data. Giving importance to selection based on superior adaptation characters and accelerating breeding programs with new breeding tools, it would help in delivering new cultivars to farmers. Practicing new genome sequencing techniques provided a lot of genetic resources which promoted Pigeon pea breeding and the techniques include molecular markers all over genome, transcriptome assemblies, QTL mapping. To improve productivity and remove disparity both genomic research and conventional breeding were initiated at ICRISAT. ICRISAT has ample genome sequence with markers usage which helped in directing research towards locating trait mapping for characters like flowering time, fertility regain, traits contributing to yield and photo-insensitivity. Genomic data helps scientists of biotechnology to identify desired genes having important agronomic characters like biotic and abiotic stress resistance which improves Pigeon pea crop production. Mapping of traits and using genomic tools helps to identify resistant or tolerant genes to those stresses and adopting MAS and other transgenic approaches. It is possible to improve Pigeon pea production in marginal environment which would ensure food security in developing countries. Imparting resistance to biotic stresses like fusarium wilt and sterility mosaic disease, other agronomic traits require genomics assisted breeding via MAS, would accelerate improvement of both varieties as well as hybrids in Pigeon pea. In hybrid breeding specially to develop cytoplasmic male sterile lines, maintainers and hybrids, the mitochondrial genes which are responsible for cytoplasmic male sterility are to be recognized which is possible making use of wide scale genome sequence data and integrating these genome resources in Pigeon pea breeding.
How to cite this article:
Aruna Prabha, Harshal Avinashe and Nidhi Dubey. Collection of genomic tools for pigeon pea crop improvement. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2021; 10(5S): 324-333.