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Vol. 12, Issue 3 (2023)

Fluoride in groundwater: Causes, impacts and their potential remediation techniques

Milind M Girkar
Groundwater is used worldwide. Groundwater fluoride is one of the world’s largest toxicological environmental threats. Groundwater fluoride primarily results from weathering and leaching of fluoride-bearing minerals from rocks and sediments. Fluoride reduces dental caries at 0.5 mg/L, but at 1.5 mg/L or higher, it can cause fluorosis. 200 million people throughout 25 countries have fluorosis. There are several low-cost and simple defluoridation methods, but rural populations have yet to benefit from them due to barriers. Rural communities require fluoride-safe drinking water. The study compared fluoride geochemistry, groundwater contamination, human exposure, adverse effects and possible fluoride toxicity treatment options. This review examines fluorosis treatment options, water fluoride reduction technologies, and protective methods. This study also examines national, regional, and Indian fluorosis prevention efforts.
Pages: 1193-1200  |  391 Views  293 Downloads

The Pharma Innovation Journal
How to cite this article:
Milind M Girkar. Fluoride in groundwater: Causes, impacts and their potential remediation techniques. Pharma Innovation 2023;12(3):1193-1200.

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