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Vol. 12, Issue 1 (2023)

Ecological significance of tillage systems and precision nutrient management in cereal based systems for carbon-cum-energy efficient and energy-carbon footprint vis a vis system productivity and profitability: A sub-tropical Indian perspectives

Author(s):
Himanshu Tiwari, RK Naresh, Manisha, Rahul Kumar, Lalit Kumar, Satvaan Singh, Sidra Qidwai, SK Kataria and Ram Pratap Singh
Abstract:
Identifying an energy-efficient system with low energy use, low global warming potential (GWP), and high profitability is essential for ensuring the sustainability of the agro-environment. The soil sustains most living organisms, being the ultimate source of their mineral nutrients. On croplands, tillage is the most important practice, which can have a major effect on the carbon pool, either negative with conventional plowing or positive, when No-tillage is applied. No-tillage practices claim to reverse historical carbon loss from soils, thereby reducing CO2 in the atmosphere through storage in soil sinks-a process known as sequestration. Carbon sequestration and an increase in soil organic matter will have a direct positive impact on soil quality and fertility. There will also be major positive effects on the environment, and on the resilience and sustainability of agriculture. The total energy inputs for TPR and DSR were 31.5 and 22.8 GJ ha-1 across two growing seasons, respectively. Higher energy input for TPR primarily resulted from extra energy use of the nursery beds and transplanting. Higher energy output of DSR (202.5GJ ha-1) over that of TPR (187.7 GJ ha-1) was due to a slightly higher yield from DSR. Therefore, DSR exhibited significantly higher energy use efficiency than that of TPR. Lower specific energy for DSR (2.78 MJ kg-1) relative to TPR (4.02 MJ kg-1) indicated that the energy used to produce per unit of rice grain could be reduced by 30.8% by adopting DSR. On average, GWP of DSR was reduced by 5.6% compared with TPR. Moreover, DSR had a 55.8% higher gross return and a 25.7%lower production cost than those of TPR. Overall, compared with TPR, DSR has the potential to increase gross economic return and energy output with reduced energy input and emissions.
The agricultural production systems are highly vulnerable in the region and are primarily dominated by small and marginal farmers with intensive farming practices that had favored the loss of carbon (C) from soil. This review discusses the potential of soil and crop management practices such as minimum/reduced/no-tillage, use of organic manure, balanced and integrated plant nutrient application, precision land levelling, precision water and pest management, residue management, and cropping system optimization to maintain the C-equilibrium between soil and atmosphere and to enhance the C-sequestration in the long run. Results of meta-analysis show a potential 36% increase in soil organic C stock in the top 0–15 cm layer in this region which amounts to ∼18 Mg C stocks ha−1. Improved management practices across crops and environment may reduce methane emission by 12% resulting in an 8% reduction in global warming potential (GWP), while non-submerged condition led to a 51% GWP reduction in rice. Conservation agriculture and precision fertilization also reduced GWP by 11 and 14%, respectively. Adoption of soil test crop response (STCR) based integrated nutrient management (INM) module (FYM + 75% NPK of STCR) minimized the energy requirement by 14%, cost of cultivation by 6.5% and besides that CF on a spatial scale was 17% lower than general recommended dose (GRD). Thus, STCR based INM module enhanced the energy use efficiency (EUE), energy productivity (EP) and energy profitability (EPF) by 28.5%, 31.5% and 31.8% respectively, over GRD.
Pages: 471-487  |  165 Views  82 Downloads


The Pharma Innovation Journal
How to cite this article:
Himanshu Tiwari, RK Naresh, Manisha, Rahul Kumar, Lalit Kumar, Satvaan Singh, Sidra Qidwai, SK Kataria, Ram Pratap Singh. Ecological significance of tillage systems and precision nutrient management in cereal based systems for carbon-cum-energy efficient and energy-carbon footprint vis a vis system productivity and profitability: A sub-tropical Indian perspectives. Pharma Innovation 2023;12(1):471-487.

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