(Fabaceae) is a plant traditionally used in Cote d’Ivoire to treat many illnesses such as sickle-cell anemia, measles and diabetes. To our knowledge, no research works were undertaken on its probable effect against cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the hypotensive and cardio-inhibitor effects of C. cajan
leaves extract (AqECc) through the
arterial blood pressure (BP) and the electrocardiogram (ECG) recording in anesthetized rabbits. The carotid artery was intubated using a catheter connected to Ludwig's mercury manometer for BP measurement. The recording of the ECG was performed using an electrocardiograph. Varied C. cajan
macerate doses (0.5 to 50 mg/kg bw) were administered to anesthetized rabbits intravenously. Phytochemical analysis was carried out in order to determine the phytoconstituents contained in the extract.
Results showed that AqECc induced a dose dependent hypotension in normotensive rabbits with a fifty percent effective dose (ED50) of 9.33 mg/kg b.w. The hypotension induced by AqECc was significantly reduced by atropine (a muscarinic cholinoreceptor antagonist). On rabbits’ electrocardiogram, AqECc decreased the amplitudes of P-wave, QRS complex, T-wave and the heart rate. As for the duration of PQ interval, it was significantly (p< 0.05) increased. However, the extract had no significant effect on the QT interval. Phytochemical screening results of the extract revealed the presence of sterols and polyterpenes, phenols, flavonoids, catechic tannins, alkaloids and saponins which are known for their hypotensive effects could explain the use of this plant by traditional healers to treat hypertension.