Abstract:Introduction and objective:
The branching of the trigeminal nerve on the face has an individual anatomical variability. The individual variability of innervation of soft tissues of the maxillofacial area should be taken into account during their local anesthesia. The purpose of the study: to develop a methods of conductive anesthesia of the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves, taking individual topographic and anatomical features of their branching.
Materials and methods: Craniometric studies were performed on 32 natural skulls of corpses of various ages and 60 images of head section of patients were done in a 3D reconstruction by multi-detector row spiral computer tomographer. The cranial index was determined, counting the number of zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal foramina on each skull and taking onto account the peculiarities of their location.
Results: It was discovered that there is a certain feature of the localization of the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal foramina on the lateral (facial) and temporal surfaces of the zygomatic bone, depending on the type of structure of the skull. Taking into account the results of craniometric studies as well as the individual topographic and anatomical features of zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves branching in people with different types of skull structure, the techniques of conduction anesthesia of the branches of the zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves was developed. In order to anesthetize this nerve in people with broad and oblong face shape, anatomical variability of its branching should be considered.
Conclusions: The location and amount of zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal foramina vary depending on the shape of the skulls. It was found that the most distinguished among the amount and location of these holes are dolichocephalic and brachiocephalic skulls. In the development of methods of conducting anesthesia of zygomaticofacial and zygomaticotemporal nerves, individual anatomical features of their branching in the zygomatic and temporal areas were taken into account.