Acaricide resistance mechanisms and monitoring tools available for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus
Surbhi, Snehil Gupta and SK Gupta
Parasitic diseases rank among the most prevalent infectious diseases. Availability of antiparasitic drugs is limited due to high cost of development of newer drugs and rapid pace of development of resistance. Literature shows that resistance against all newly launched antiparasitic drugs is noticed within a decade time. Condition is severe and discouraging in tropical countries like India where animals carry substantial parasitic load and there is indiscriminate use of drugs. Chemotherapy being central to the control of parasites, drug resistance is likely to be a major issue in near future. Constant surveillance and monitoring of antiparasitic drug resistance is the need of the hour. The problem of resistance can be circumvented either by delaying its onset or use of alternate strategies in the form of integrated parasite management. During the course of evolution, nature has developed various mechanisms such as entomo-pathogenic soil nematodes, entomo-pathogenic fungi and certain semiochemicals to check and concentrate the tick population on and off the host. In the last 7 years, there is an outburst of acaricide resistance reports (BHC, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, amitraz, diazinon, malathion) in different states of India. With the advancement in technology, certain interventions such as preparation of anti-tick vaccine, nanoparticle formulations and use of synergistic have been practiced to improve the efficacy of drug formulation and combat the emerging acaricide resistance in India. Investigation of herbal acaricides and exploration of potential lead chemical molecules in proven phyto-formulation is another non-conventional approach considered by researchers as alternate for devising tick control programmes. In the current scenario, an integrated approach consisting of managemental, immunological, chemical and botanicals measures could intervene the emerging resistance problem and develop a holistic approach of tick control.
How to cite this article:
Surbhi, Snehil Gupta, SK Gupta. Acaricide resistance mechanisms and monitoring tools available for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Pharma Innovation 2018;7(7):398-405.