Antimicrobial properties of natural products: A review
Annada Das and Kaushik Satyaprakash
Natural products are known for their antimicrobial factors since time immemorial. By virtue of their antimicrobial factors, natural products play and important role in modern drug development programmes. Numerous naturally occurring antimicrobial agents can be of plant origin, animal origin, mineral origin, microbial origin etc. Many plant and animal products have antimicrobial activities due to the presence of a variety of active principles or secondary metabolites or phytochemicals (in case of plants) like alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids essential oils, flavenoids, lectins, proteins & polypeptides, quinones, coumarins, polyphenols & phenolic compounds, enzymes, lysozymes, phagocytic cells and many other organic constituents. Neem leaves show anti-dermatophytic activity. The 5% Neem oil placed over breeding places inhibited breeding of Anopheles stephani and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 45 days. Essential oils from Thyme, cinnamon & Eucalyptus showed antibacterial activity. Glycyrrhizin, a triterpenoid from Glycyrrhiza glabra (licquorice) was tested effective against RNA viruses like measles virus, polio virus etc. Quinine the antimalarial drug is obtained from the bark of cinchona tree. Leaves of Cassica alata show in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi etc. Antimicrobial properties of milk are due to presence of many proteins and peptides like immunglobulins, lactoperioxidase system, lactoferrin, some lysozymes etc. The black meat and blood of Kadaknath breed of poultry is famous for its medicinal value. The cow urine concentrate and cow dung showed antibacterial activity against many bacteria like B. subtilis, P. asoginosa etc. Co-ordinated approach is required among the planners, researches, scientists, industrialists, Ayurveda exports, developmental agencies, administrators, extension workers, growers and funding agencies & users to utilize the immense potential of natural products to serve as an alternate source of combating infections.
How to cite this article:
Annada Das, Kaushik Satyaprakash. Antimicrobial properties of natural products: A review. Pharma Innovation 2018;7(6):532-537.