Dexmedetomidine: Systemic effects and clinical application in animals
Raja Aijaz Ahmad, Amarpal and Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo
Dexmedetomidine, the latest α-2 agonist, is an active optical isomer of racemate medetomidine. It produces dose dependent sedation and analgesia in animals. In veterinary practice it is used for premedication and as an adjunct to general anaesthesia in several species. Similar to other alpha-2 agonists it exerts its effects through the action on alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. The sedative and anxiolytic effects are mediated by activation of supraspinal autoreceptors located in the pons whereas analgesic effects are mediated by activation of heteroreceptors located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Dexmedetomidine has been shown to have an anaesthetic sparing effect on injectable as well as inhalation anaesthetics and decreases the requirements for postoperative analgesics. Cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine are not very much different from the classic biphasic pattern of changes in arterial blood pressure reported for other alpha-2 agonists. Dexmedetomidine causes a transitory decrease in respiration, but can obtund the stress response when administered systemically. The present review describes in detail the mechanism of action, effects on various body systems and clinical application of dexmedetomidine in animals.
How to cite this article:
Raja Aijaz Ahmad, Amarpal, Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo. Dexmedetomidine: Systemic effects and clinical application in animals. Pharma Innovation 2018;7(1):272-278.