Abiotic stress management in herbaceous crops using breeding and biotechnology approaches
Mohit Husain, Jagdeesh Prasad Rathore, Aatifa Rasool, Zaffar Bashir, Mohd Tariq and Zubair Ahmad Dar
In the face of a global scarcity of resources, abiotic stresses like water stress, temperature stress, mineral stress, oxidation stress are major limiting factors in plant growth and development. Vegetable crops are generally sensitive to environmental extremes, and thus high temperatures and limited soil moisture are the major causes of low yields in the tropics and will be further magnified by climate change. The response of plants to environmental stresses depends on the plant developmental stage and the length and severity of the stress. Plants may respond similarly to avoid one or more stresses through morphological or biochemical mechanisms (Capiati et al., 2006). Adapting agri-horti system to future conditions is essential to meet the need of the growing population and increasing demand for vegetables, and other horticultural products. This enormous and difficult task requires tremendous research efforts from multiple disciplines. Stress physiology studies identify mechanisms of stress tolerance and provide an approach, method, and traits for screening stress-resistant genotypes. Molecular biology and genomic investigations lead to a better understanding of the structural organization and functional properties of genetic variation for stress-related traits, allow gene-based selection through identification of molecular markers and high-throughput genotyping techniques, and increase the gene pool available, including new sources of stress-tolerant traits or transgenes. The genetically complex responses to abiotic stresses are multigenic and thus more difficult to control and engineer. Plant engineering strategies for abiotic stress tolerance rely on the expression of genes that are involved in signaling and regulatory pathways (Seki et al., 2003) or genes that encode proteins conferring stress tolerance or enzymes present in pathways leading to the synthesis of functional and structural metabolites (Wang et al., 2004). Plant breeders need to translate these findings into stress-tolerant crop varieties by using all tools available that include germplasm screening, marker-assisted selection, plant transformation, and conventional breeding methods.
How to cite this article:
Mohit Husain, Jagdeesh Prasad Rathore, Aatifa Rasool, Zaffar Bashir, Mohd Tariq, Zubair Ahmad Dar. Abiotic stress management in herbaceous crops using breeding and biotechnology approaches. Pharma Innovation 2017;6(10):269-276.