Biosensor is an analytical device which is used to detect a biological product. In the development of biosensors, nanotechnology is playing an increasingly important role. The nanotechnology based biosensor or nanobiosensor technology is revolutionizing the health care industry such as the nanobiosensor technology is used in the measurement of metabolites, monitoring of diabetes etc., forensic medicine, homeland security. In food and drink industry these are used for remote sensing of water quality, determination of drug residue in food etc. For environment protection these are used in the detection of pesticides and river water contaminants like heavy metal ions, and genome analysis of organisms and communications.
The use of nanomaterials for the construction of biosensors has improved the sensitivity and performance of them, and has allowed the introduction of many new signal transduction technologies in biosensors. The development of tools and processes used to fabricate, measure and image nanoscale objects, has led to the development of sensors that interact with extremely small molecules that need to be analysed.
Several nanobiosensor architecture based mechanical devices, optical resonators, functionalised nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes and nanofibers have been in use. In particular, nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots have being actively investigated for their application in biosensors, which have become a new interdisciplinary frontier between biological detection and material science.
With the advent of nanotechnology and its impact on developing ultrasensitive devices, it can be stated that it is probably one of the most promising way to solve some of the problems concerning the increasing need to develop highly sensitive, fast and economic method of analysis in medical diagnostics, food and drink industry, environment protection etc.