Glaucoma -A Eye Disorder Its Causes, Risk Factor, Prevention and Medication.
Debjit Bhowmik*, K.P.Sampath Kumar, Lokesh Deb, Shravan Paswan and A.S.Dutta
Glaucoma refers to a group of eye conditions that lead to damage to the optic nerve, the nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the brain. In many cases, damage to the optic nerve is due to increased pressure in the eye, also known as intraocular pressure. Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve that affects approximately 60 million people globally. It is the second most common cause of blindness, leaving an estimated 7.5 million people blind. In India it affects 11 million people, of which 1.5 million are blind. Glaucoma is a disease that is often associated with elevated intraocular pressure, in which damage to the eye (optic) nerve can lead to loss of vision and even blindness. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Glaucoma usually causes no symptoms early in its course, at which time it can only be diagnosed by regular eye examinations and screenings with the frequency of examination based on age and the presence of other risk factors. Intraocular pressure increases when either too much fluid is produced in the eye or the drainage or outflow channels of the eye become blocked. While anyone can get glaucoma, some people are at greater risk. The two main types of glaucoma are open-angle glaucoma, which has several variants and is a long duration condition, and angle-closure glaucoma, which may be a sudden condition or a chronic disease. Damage to the optic nerve and impairment of vision from glaucoma is irreversible. Several painless tests that determine the intraocular pressure, the status of the optic nerve and drainage angle, and visual fields are used to diagnose glaucoma. Glaucoma is usually treated with eye drops, although lasers and surgery can also be used. Most cases can be controlled well with these treatments, thereby preventing further loss of vision. Much research into the causes and treatment of glaucoma is being carried out throughout the world. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to preserving sight in people with glaucoma.
How to cite this article:
Debjit Bhowmik*, K.P.Sampath Kumar, Lokesh Deb, Shravan Paswan, A.S.Dutta. Glaucoma -A Eye Disorder Its Causes, Risk Factor, Prevention and Medication.. Pharma Innovation 2012;1(1):66-81.