Recent Challenges and Advances in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System
K. P. Sampath Kumar*, Debjit Bhowmik, Shravan Paswan, Shweta Srivastava
Ocular drug delivery is one of the most fascinating and challenging tasks facing the Pharmaceutical researchers. One of the major barriers of ocular medication is to obtain and maintain a therapeutic level at the site of action for prolonged period of time. Ocular drug delivery is hampered by the barriers protecting the eye. The bioavailability of the active drug substance is often the major hurdle to overcome. Conventional ocular dosage form, including eye drops, are no longer sufficient to combat ocular diseases. This article reviews the constraints with conventional ocular therapy, essential factors in ocular pharmacokinetics, and explores various approaches like eye ointments, gel, viscosity enhancers, prodrug, penetration enhancers, microparticles, liposomes, niosomes, ocular inserts, implants, intravitreal injections, nanoparticles, nanosuspension, microemulsion, in situ-forming gel, iontophoresis, and periocular injections to improve the ocular bioavailability of drug and provide continuous and controlled release of the drug to the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye and selected pharmacological future challenges in ophthalmology. In near future, a great deal of attention will be paid to develop noninvasive sustained drug release for both anterior and posterior segment eye disorders. Current momentum in the invention of new drug delivery systems hold a promise toward much improved therapies for the treatment of vision-threatening disorders.
How to cite this article:
K. P. Sampath Kumar*, Debjit Bhowmik, Shravan Paswan, Shweta Srivastava. Recent Challenges and Advances in Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System. Pharma Innovation 2012;1(4):01-15.