Vol. 4, Issue 2 (2015)
Use of plant test system for the evaluation of cytogenetic effect of cadmium
The cadmium effect on the mitotic cycle, frequency and spectrum of chromosomal aberrations in root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated to establish the cytogenetic effects of cadmium on hereditary apparatus. A research object was a cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in the concentration 0.5 µM. Cytological analysis of Allium cepa samples showed that cadmium chloride (0.5 µM) inhibited significantly the germination of Allium cepa roots as compared to control at 18%, р<0.05. Mitotic index (MI) in cadmium chloride solution was not significantly different as compared to control and showed the result in 5.53 %, (р<0.05). Analysis of cells ratio in the mitotic cycle stages showed that cadmium chloride inhibited the proliferative activity of root tip cells and changed the course of metabolic processes that were expressed in the formation of the mitotic apparatus violations. The number of chromosomal aberrations in a cadmium chloride solution increased in 5.16 times compared to the control.
Chromosome aberrations (damage of chromosome components and mitotic ap-paratus) caused by cadmium chloride were established by means of cytogenetic analy-sis.So, cadmium chloride has the inhibitory effect on the mitotic cycle and on the growth of root tip cells of Allium cepa. Cadmium chloride has expressed phyto- and genotoxic activity. Cadmium chloride at concentration (0.5 µM) makes credible mitosis and cytokinesis violation in Allium cepaapical meristem. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations in cadmium chloride is significantlyhigher (12.54 ± 0.10)% than control (2.4 ± 0.14)%.