Vol. 2, Issue 10 (2013)
A Potential Approach Of Scaffolds For Drug Delivery In Tissue Engineering
Current strategies of regenerative medicine are focused on the restoration of pathologically altered tissue architectures by transplantation of cells in combination with supportive scaffolds and bio molecules. In recent years, considerable interest has been given to biologically active scaffolds which are based on similar analogs of the extracellular matrix that have induced synthesis of tissues and organs. To restore function or regenerate tissue, a scaffold is necessary that will act as a temporary matrix for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition, with subsequent in growth until the tissues are totally restored or regenerated. Scaffolds are implants or injects, which are used to deliver cells, drugs, and genes into the body. Different forms of polymeric scaffolds for cell/drug delivery are available :(1) a typical three-dimensional porous matrix, (2) a nanofibrous matrix, (3) a thermo sensitive sol-gel transition hydro gel, and (4) a porous microsphere. A scaffold provides a suitable substrate for cell attachment, cell proliferation, differentiated function, and cell migration. Scaffold matrices can be used to achieve drug delivery with high loading and efficiency to specific sites. Biomaterials used for fabrication of scaffold may be natural polymers such as alginate, proteins, collagens, gelatin, fibrins, and albumin, or synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol and polyglycolide. Bioceramics such as hydroxyapatites and tricalcium phosphates also are used. Techniques used for fabrication of a scaffold include Solvent casting/particulate leaching, Emulsion freeze drying, Rapid prototyping, Thermally induced phase separation, Gas foaming/particulate leaching and High pressure processing. These techniques allow the preparation of porous structures with regular porosity.. The present review gives a detailed account of the need for the development of scaffolds along with the materials used and techniques adopted to manufacture scaffolds for tissue engineering and for prolonged drug delivery.